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Edited by: Andor Kerekes, NRIRR (OSSKI)
Authors: Bujtás, Tibor (PA Zrt), Glavatszkih, Nándor (OSSKI), Guczi, Judit (OSSKI), Hetényiné Pap, Viktória (Bács-Kiskun M. ÁÉEÁ), Kelemen, Mária (ÁNTSZ Tolna M.Int.), Kerekes, Andor (OSSKI), Nagy, Zoltán (PA Zrt), Ranga, Tibor (PA Zrt.), Rozmanitz,Péter (ADV KVF), Tarján, Sándor (OÉVI), Vancsura, Péter (ADV KVF), Vilimi,József (Tolna M. ÁÉEÁ)
NRIRR (OSSKI), Budapest, July 2006
The whole report can be downloaded in Microsoft Word format
In the region of the NPP at Paks (PAE) the institutions of the Ministry of Health (OSSKI and ÁNTSZ Tolna M. Int.), the Ministry of Agriculture and Regional Development (OÉVI, Bács-Kiskun M. ÁÉEÁ and Tolna M. ÁÉEÁ) and Ministry of Environment (ADV KVF) in collaboration with the radiation monitoring serviceof the Plant monitor the environment on the basis of decision of the Hungarian Atomic Energy Commission dated 1981.
The survey data of the authority laboratories and some important operational, meteorological and environmental emission data of the NPP are stored and evaluated by the Computer Centre in the National Research Institute for Radiobiology and Radiohygiene (OSSKI).
As the result of decreasing number of gross-beta measurements the total number of measuring results (6321) was somewhat lower than in the previous years.
The plant is placed near the Danube 100 km south from Budapest. The water inflow and the main outflow are about 0.4 million m3/h, the wastewater outflow is 1500 m3/d. The airborne radioactivity is released by two stacks with air through put of 0.5-0.6 million m3/h each.
The new system of release limits was introduced in 2004 at the Paks NPP. The new release limits are derived from the dose constraint of 90 µSv for each radionuclide, physical/chemical form and release pathway. The compliance with the release limitation is ensured by the release limit criterion, i.e. the sum of the ratios of the individual releases and limits for radionuclides.
The significant components of the airborne release of the Paks NPP in 2006 were the following:
|Radionuclide||14C (CO2)||41Ar||88Kr||137Cs||131I (elementary)||87Kr||60Co||106Ru||144Ce||3H (HTO)||135Xe||Limit criterion|
|Release||47 GBq||6.7 TBq||0.53 TBq||9.4 MBq||2.1 MBq||0.42 TBq||7.8 MBq||3.1 MBq||11 MBq||2.7 TBq||1.3 TBq||0.00063|
The monitoring of liquid effluents included the measurement of water samples from the inflow and outflow water channels and control tanks of the NPP. Radioactivity of the waste water can be reliably controlled and the liquid releases determined by the regular analysis of water of control tanks before release.
The main components of the liquid release in 2006 were as it follows:
|Release||24 TBq||390 MBq||69 MBq||24 MBq||13 MBq||28 MBq||28 MBq||13 MBq||0.0016|
The limit criteria concerning the releases are summarised in the following table:
It is noted, that the limit criterion is less than one by over two order of magnitude.
The radioactive releases normalised to 1 GW.year annual electrical production can be seen in the following table in comparison with international data from the UNSCEAR Report (2000):
|Release||Quantity||Paks NPP||UNSCEAR (1995-1997)|
|Airborne||noble gases, total activity [TBq]||13||13|
|aerosols, total activity [GBq]||0.53||0.13|
|3H (HT + HTO) [TBq]||2.1||2.4|
|14C (CO2+organic) [TBq]||0.42||0.22|
|iodine (131I equivalent) [GBq]||0.023||0.17|
|Liquid||corrosion and fission products, total activity [GBq]||0.80||8.1|
The normalised liquid releases and several components of the airborne release from the Paks NPP were below the world averages in 2006.
Radionuclides of NPP origin (60Co and 137Cs) were detected only in a few ases in the air environment. Water samples in the environment did also not reveal radioactive pollution by the nuclear plant in Danube.
The radioactive pollution attributable to the Chernobyl accident could not be detected in most of the samples except of soil and sediment. (In the sediment of surface waters and soil the 137Cs concentration of Chernobyl origin still exceeded the former background level.)
As the geographical and seasonal variation in dose rate is 20-30 %, enhancing effect of the NPP could not been observed in the environment.
The estimated annual effective dose 3 km far from the Plant due to the airborne and aquatic releases was 67 nSv in 2005. However, the natural background value is somewhat above 3 mSv and the dose constraint set by the competent authority is 90 µSv. The dose contribution from the aquatic releases (24 nSv) of mainly tritium origin was about 30 percent of the total dose.
The inhabitants living in the 30 km environment of the NPP are about 210 thousands. The estimated collective dose was 0.6 man∙mSv in 2005.