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In the region of the NPP at Paks (PA Rt) the institutions of the Ministry of Health (OKK-OSSKI, ÁNTSZ Tolna M. Int.), the Ministry of Agriculture and Regional Development (OÉVI) and Ministry of Environment (ADV KVF) in collaboration with the radiation monitoring service of the Plant monitor the environment on the basis of decision of the Hungarian Atomic Energy Commission dated 1981.
The survey data of the authority laboratories and some important operational, meteorological and environmental emission data of the NPP are stored and evaluated by the Computer Centre in the National Research Institute for Radiobiology and Radiohygiene (OKK-OSSKI).
There were stored and evaluated more than 7000 measuring results in 2002.
The plant is placed near the Danube 100-km south from Budapest. The water inflow and the main outflow are about 0.4 million m3/h, the wastewater outflow is 1500 m3/d. The airborne radioactivity is released by two stacks with air through put of 0.5-0.6 million m3/h each.
The airborne releases of the Paks NPP in 2002 were the following:
|total beta activity of noble gases||
|total beta activity of aerosols||
|total radioiodine (131I-equivalent)||
|89Sr + 90Sr||
The distribution of noble gases was the following: 41Ar: 11.5 TBq, 85Kr: 0.145 TBq, 85mKr: 3.2 TBq, 88Kr: 1.31 TBq, 133Xe: 1.27 TBq and 135Xe: 1.11 TBq. The dominant components of the aerosols were the 58Co (125 MBq), 60Co (127 MBq), 110mAg (47.2 MBq), 59Fe (23.7 MBq) and 137Cs (14.4 MBq) radionuclides.
The monitoring of liquid effluents included the measurement of water samples from the inflow and outflow water channels and control tanks of the NPP.
The inflow and outflow water channels of the plant had nearly identical gross beta activity concentrations, while in the wastewater channel - which is actually the release pathway of the liquid waste of nuclear power plant origin - the activity concentrations were about 10-30 times higher. In the wastewater channel the tritium activity is much higher than in the one and ranged between wide limits. Radioactivity of the wastewater was reliably controlled by regular analysis of the water of control tanks before release.
The liquid effluents in 2002 were as it follows:
|total beta activity||
(Alpha emitting radionuclides were not detected by alpha spectrometry)
The airborne and liquid releases in percentages of the limits set by the authorities are shown in the following table:
|Airborne: aerosol, total beta activity||
|noble gases, total beta activity||
|iodine (I-131 equivalent)||
|Sr-89 + Sr-90 activity||
|Liquid: waste water, total beta activity||
|waste water, Sr-90 activity||
|waste water, tritium activity||
*It should be noted, that the tritium release was 61 % of the authorised limit, however the dose contribution from tritium is less than one hundredth per cent. The separation and holding of tritium back is not possible by the recent techniques.
The radioactive effluents normalised to the annual electrical production (GW.year) can be seen in the following table in comparison with international data from the UNSCEAR Report (2000):
|Release||Quantity||Paks NPP|| UNSCEAR
|airborne||noble gases, total beta [TBq]||35||13|
|aerosol, total beta [GBq]||0.14||0.13|
|H-3 (HT + HTO) [TBq]||3.9||2.4|
|C-14 (CO 2 +organic) [TBq]||0.46||0.22|
|iodine (I-131 equivalent) [GBq]||0.054||0.17|
|liquid||total beta [GBq]||0.78||8.1|
It can be seen that the normalised liquid releases from the PAKS NPP are below the world average, while the components of the airborne release are equal to or somewhat higher than the averages.
The radioactive pollution attributable to the Chernobyl accident could not be detected in most of the samples except of soil and sediment. (In the sediment of surface waters and soil the 137Cs concentration of Chernobyl origin still exceeded the background.)
By special and sensitive investigations the nuclides of 60Co, 110mAg, 137Cs and 14C were detected with near to the detection limit in a small number of samples from the air environment of the NPP.
The regular monitoring of Danube is performed at Paks and Dunaföldvár (up-stream to Paks) and down-stream at Gerjen, Kalocsa, Baja and Mohács. No radioactive pollution due to the NPP could be detected in the living water.
Examination of the grass, fodder plants, milk and meat samples have not confirmed the presence of radionuclides of NPP origin.
The geographical and seasonal variation in dose rate is 20-30 %, enhancing effect of the NPP was not observed in the environment.
There was not necessary any action of the authorities because of the radioactive pollution of the environment attributable to the operation of the NPP in 2002
The estimated annual effective dose 3 km far from the Plant due to the airborne and aquatic releases was 105 nSv in 2002, while the natural background value was somewhat above 3 mSv and the dose constraint set by the competent authority was 0.09 mSv.
The dose contribution from the aquatic releases (26 nSv) of mainly tritium origin was about only 25 %.
The inhabitants living in the 30 km environment of the NPP are 210 thousands. The collective dose assessed took about 0.8 man. mSv in 2002.